Environmental factors that determine the occurrence and seasonal dynamics of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae
AbstractThis study investigated the seasonal dynamics of two populations of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae Ralfs ex Bornet & Flahault var. flos-aquae and four populations of A. flos-aquae var. klebahnii Elenkin in eutrophic water bodies over 1 year from February 2006 to January 2007. The growth of A. flos-aquae var. flos-aquae was promoted at high temperatures even if in one case the biomass development was very low when other co-occurring cyanoprokaryotes (Anabaena spp. and Microcystis spp.) were abundant. In contrast, the highest density of the other population of A. flos-aquae var. flos-aquae was observed in August when the population density of M. aeruginosa (Kützing) Kützing reached an annual peak. A. flos-aquae var. flos-aquae usually bloomed in summer but could also tolerate low temperatures in the winter, and was present in relatively high densities. The populations of A. flos-aquae var. klebahnii observed in this study can be divided into three groups based on preferred temperature; three populations increased in winter, and the other increased in summer. Large biomasses of the low-temperature-adapted A. flos-aquae were observed mainly during winter when population densities of co-occurring cyanoprokaryotes (Anabaena spp., Microcystis spp. and Planktothrix raciborskii (Woloszynska) Anagnostidis & Komárek) were relatively low or almost absent. The increase in or existence of cooccurring cyanoprokaryotes during the summer resulted in a decrease of the A. flos-aquae population density. It was revealed that high temperatures (20-25 °C) are suitable for maintaining A. flos-aquae var. klebahnii strains isolated from the study ponds, implying that low-temperature-adapted A. flos-aquae can grow over a wide range of water temperatures. The high-temperatureadapted A. flos-aquae var. klebahnii co-existed with M. aeruginosa during summer; however, its peak population density was significantly lower than those in previous years when M. aeruginosa was absent. Overall, analytical results imply a possible adverse impact of the existence of other cyanoprokaryotes, such as Anabaena and Microcystis, on both varieties of A. flos-aquae; however, its mechanism remains unknown. Nutrient concentrations and pH had no clear impact on the population density of A. flos-aquae. Based on these observations, progress of eutrophication and absence of other cyanoprokaryotes are likely the key factors determining the future expansion of A. flos-aquae.
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