Residence time and physical processes in lakes
AbstractThe residence time of a lake is highly dependent on internal physical processes in the water mass conditioning its hydrodynamics; early attempts to evaluate this physical parameter emphasize the complexity of the problem, which depends on very different natural phenomena with widespread synergies. The aim of this study is to analyse the agents involved in these processes and arrive at a more realistic definition of water residence time which takes account of these agents, and how they influence internal hydrodynamics. With particular reference to temperate lakes, the following characteristics are analysed: 1) the set of the lake's caloric components which, along with summer heating, determine the stabilizing effect of the surface layers, and the consequent thermal stratification, as well as the winter destabilizing effect; 2) the wind force, which transfers part of its momentum to the water mass, generating a complex of movements (turbulence, waves, currents) with the production of active kinetic energy; 3) the water flowing into the lake from the tributaries, and flowing out through the outflow, from the standpoint of hydrology and of the kinetic effect generated by the introduction of these water masses into the lake. These factors were studied in the context of the general geographical properties of the lake basin and the watershed (latitude, longitude, morphology), also taking account of the local and regional climatic situation. Also analysed is the impact of ongoing climatic change on the renewal of the lake water, which is currently changing the equilibrium between lake and atmosphere, river and lake, and relationships
- Abstract views: 2681
- PDF: 6629
PAGEPress has chosen to apply the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published.
An Open Access Publication is one that meets the following two conditions:
- the author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.
- a complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.