The frequent outbreak of cyanobacterial blooms has become a worldwide phenomenon in freshwater ecosystems. Studies have elucidated the close relationship between harmful algal blooms and nutrient contents, including the loading of nitrogen and the ratios of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). In this study, the effect of inorganic (nitrate and ammonium) and organic (urea) nitrogen at varied N/P ratios on the Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905 accumulation and photosynthesis was investigated. The optimal NO3/P in this study were 30~50 indicated by the cell abundance (4.1×106/mL), pigment concentration (chlorophyll a 3.1 mg/L, phycocyanin 8.3mg/L), and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (rETR, Ek, α, φPSII and Fv/Fmvalues), while too high NO3-N (N/P=100:1) would cause an intracellular nitrate inhibition, leading to a decrease of photosynthetic activity. In addition, low concentration of NH4-N (N/P=4:1) would favor the M. aeruginosa growth and photosynthesis, and high NH4/P ratio (>16) would rise the ammonium toxicity of algal cells and affect the N assimilation. In urea treatments, M. aeruginosa responded similarly to the NH4-N treatments both in growth curves and pigment contents, and the favorable N/P ratio was between 16~30, suggested by the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. The results demonstrated that the various chemical forms of N and N/P ratios have a significant impact on Microcystis abundance and photosynthesis. More work is needed to figure out the mechanism of nitrogen utilization by Microcystis and the photosynthetic response to nutrient stress at the molecular level.